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Incandescent lamps


Incandescent lamps

The inefficient classic for pleasant lighting

Incandescent lamps generate light by thermal radiation, i.e. by heating a tungsten filament inside a glass bulb until it glows. They have poor environmental credentials on account of their poor energy efficiency (energie efficiency class E to G). Since these lamps are therefore considered as environmental polluters, a gradual phasing out of inefficient illuminants is being carried out. This means that all lamps that do not fulfil the minimum requirements with regard to energy efficiency must no longer be produced and placed on the market. In fact, this means that there is no future for incandescent lamps.
A further significant disadvantage of conventional incandescent lamps is their comparatively short  service life of approx. only 1,000 hours. If used for only 3 hours a day, they need to be replaced every year. However, the incandescent lamp does have one major advantage. It emits a very warm, pleasant light with an excellent colour rendering (Ra = 100). making colours appear brighter, particularly red, green and yellow tones. By mean of a leading-edge dimmer, the light intensity of incandescent lamps can be continuously adjusted. Usually, these are integrated into the switch box.

 

Replacement for the conventional incandescent lamp

Already in 2009, all incandescent lamps with a power of 100 watts and more were withdrawn from circulation as a first step of the incandescent lamp phase-out. Since then, the minimum requirements were increased annually. As part of the fourth step in 2012, the requirements were tightened once again so that it was no longer allowed to put the last, remaining incandescent lamps on the market.

For those who still want to enjoy atmospheric light, it is recommended to use 12 V halogen lamps or as efficient alternatives. Thus, you can save between 30% and 50% of energy without having to compromise on light quality. However, halogen lamps are also affected by the incandescent lamp phase-out. Less efficient models are already subject to restrictions. After 2016 only particularly efficient halogen lamps will be available.

For smart savers it is recommended to use energie saving lamps. The disadvantage in this respect is that in comparison to halogen lamps and incandescent lamps a poorer colour rendering index of Ra=80 must be accepted. This means that the colours look less brilliant. Furthermore, the light character of energy-saving lamps is exposed to criticism. Critics often state that the light is too cold and unnatural. Potential dangers to health posed by energy-saving lamps are also often discussed, for instance, due to the fact that these lamps contain mercury.

A more efficient alternative is offered by LED lamps. These not only offer an impressive efficiency compared to energy-saving lamps but they also stand out for an extremely long service life. The light quality of LEDs was first strongly criticised, however, it has improved over the years. Modern LEDs offer a high luminous efficacy per watt and achieve a colour rendering index of up to Ra=95.

 

Replacement of incandescent lamps

At the latest when the last supplies of conventional incandescent lamps are exhausted, alternative lighting solutions for your home must be found. The following sample calculations illustrate that you can save a lot of money by replacing conventional incandescent lamps by efficient illuminants.

Sample calculations:

 

How much money can I save by replacing five conventional incandescent lamps by energy-efficient illuminants?

 
 
5 x incandescent lamps 60 W each
5 x energy-saving lamps 11 W each
  • KW/h per year
    300
    55
  • Annual costs for lamps
    5,45 €
    9,17 €
  • Annual electricity costs
    63,00 €
    11,55 €
  • Total annual costs
    68,45 €
    20,72 €
  •  
     
     
  • Annual savings
     
    47,73 €


This calculation is based on the following
Electricity price of €0.21 per kW/h
1,000 hours of use per year
Incandescent lamp: service life of 1,000 h, €1.09 (incl. VAT)
Energy-saving lamp: service life of 6,000 h, €11.00 (incl. VAT)
Annual costs for lamps = purchase price x hours of use / service life
 
 
5 x incandescent lamps 60 W each
5 x 230 V halogen lamps 42 W each
  • KW/h per year
    300
    210
  • Annual costs for lamps
    5,45 €
    10,00 €
  • Annual electricity costs
    63,00 €
    44,10 €
  • Total annual costs
    68,45 €
    54,10 €
  •  
     
     
  • Annual savings
     
    14,35 €


This calculation is based on the following
Electricity price of €0.21 per kW/h
1,000 hours of use per year
Incandescent lamp: service life of 1,000 h, €1.09 (incl. VAT)
230 V eco halogen lamp: service life of 2,000 h, €4.00 (incl. VAT)
Annual costs for lamps = purchase price x hours of use / service life
 

Which energy-efficient illuminants may I use to replace my incandescent lamps?

 

Standard incandescent lamp with E27 base

 
Incandescent lamp
230 V halogen lamp
Energy-saving lamp bulb-shaped
Energy-saving lamp rod-shaped
 
   
 
 
  • 15 watts
    -
    -
    -
  • 25 watts
    18 watts
    5 watts
    5 watts
  • 40 watts
    28 watts
    7 watts
    7 watts
  • 50 watts
    -
    10 watts
    11 watts
  • 60 watts
    42 watts
    -
    11 watts
  • 65 watts
    -
    15 watts
    15 watts
  • 75 watts
    53 watts
    -
    20 watts
  • 100 watts
    70 watts
    20 watts
    23 watts
  • 150 watts
    105 watts
    -
    -

 

Reflector lamp with E27 base

 
Incandescent lamp
230V halogen lamp
Energy-saving lamp
Energy-saving lamp
  
 
 
 
  • 25 watts
    -
    -
    -
  • 30 watts
    -
    -
    -
  • 40 watts
    -
    -
    -
  • 60 watts
    -
    -
    -
  • 75 watts
    42 watts
    15 watts
    -
  • 100 watts
    -
    20 watts
    23 watts

 

Globe lamp with E27 base

 
Incandescent lamp
Energy-saving lamp
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  • 25 watts
    -
     
     
  • 40 watts
    -
     
     
  • 60 watts
    15 watts
     
     
  • 100 watts
    20 watts
     
     

Standard incandescent lamp and incandescent candle lamp with E14 base

 
Incandescent lamp
230 V halogen lamp
Energy-saving lamps candle-shaped
Energy-saving lamps rod-shaped
 
  
 
 
  • 15 watts
    -
    -
    3 watts
  • 25 watts
    18 watts
    5 watts
    5 watts
  • 40 watts
    28 watts
    7 watts
    7 watts
  • 60 watts
    42 watts
    9 watts
    11 watts

Reflector lamp with E14 base

 
Incandescent lamp
230 V halogen lamp
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
  • 25 watts
    -
     
     
  • 30 watts
    -
     
     
  • 40 watts
    28 watts
     
     
  • 60 watts
    -
     
     

Please also read the information on Energy saving lamps


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